principal forms of urdu poetry
there are six type “principal forms of urdu poetry”
[Ghazal] is a set of two liner couplets,which strictly should end with the same rhyme and should be within one of the predefined meters of Ghazals.There has to be minimum of five couplets to form a Ghazal.Couplets may or may not have same thought.It is one of the most difficult forms of poetry as there are many strict parameters that one needs to abide by while writing ghazal.
[qasida] a kind of ode,often panegyric on a benefactor,sometimes a satire,sometimes a poem dealing with an important event. As a rule it is longer than ghazal,but it follows the same system of rhyme.
[Marsiya] is nearly always on the death of Hasan and Hussain and their families,but occasionally on the death of relatives and friends.It is usually in six-lined stanzas with the rhyme aaaabb. The recitation of these elegies in the first ten days of Muharram is one of the greatest event in Muslim life. A fully developed marsiya is always an epic.The famous marsia writers who inherited the tradition of Mir Anis among his successive generations are Mir Nawab Ali ‘Munis’, Dulaha Sahab ‘Uruj’, Mustafa Meerza urf Piyare Sahab ‘Rasheed’, Syed Muhammad Mirza Uns, Ali Nawab ‘Qadeem’,Syed Sajjad Hussain “Shadeed” Lucknavi, Allama,Dr.Syed Ali Imam Zaidi,”Gauher” Luckhnavi the(great grandson of Mir Babber Ali Anis).
[Masnavi] in the majority of cases a poetic romance. It may extend to several thousand lines, but generally is much shorter. A few masnavis deal with ordinary domestic and other occurrences. Mir and sauda wrote some of this kind. They are always in heroic couplets, and the common metre is bacchic tetrameterwith an iambus for last foot. The Religious masnavi Histori of Islam (Tarikh-e-Islam Az Quran) written by Dr.Syed Ali Imam Zaidi Gauher Lucknavi.
[Tazkira] biographical anthology,almost always of poetry alone.This is often a mere collection of names with a line or two of information about each poet, followed by specimen of his composition. On the other hand it may be the history of urdupoetry with copious illustrative extracts.The best tazkiras give biographical details, but fail in literary criticism,and we get little idea of style or poetical power, still less of contents of poems.Even the large anthologies do not systematically review an author’s work. Most of them have the names in alphabetical order,but one or two prefer historical order.The majority quote only lyrics, and the quotations,usually chosen at random,do not illustrate poetry.
[Nazm] Urdu nazm is a major part of Urdu poetry.From Nazeer Akarabadi, Iqbal,Josh, Firaq,Akhtarul Iman to down the line Noon Meem Rashid, Faiz, Ali Sardar Jafri and Kaifi Azmi.They have covered common life,philosophical thinking, national issues and the precarious predecament of individual human being.As a distinct form of nazm many urdu poets influenced by English and other European poets took to writing sonnets in Urdu language.Azmatullah Khan (1887-1923) is believed to have introduced this format to Urdu Literature.The other renowned Urdu poets who wrote sonnets were Akhtar Junagarhi, Akhtar Sheerani, Noon Meem Rashid, Mehr laal soni zia fatehabadi, Salaam machh ali shahari and wazir Agha.
principal understanding made by : Zubair Siddiq